Some Natural Phenomena – Lightning and Earthquakes


Winds, storms, and cyclones are some natural phenomena. Those are phenomena of destruction. Two different adverse herbal phenomena may be mentioned here: lightning and earthquake.

Electrically Neutral State of Matter:

  • Most of the materials are impartial to electricity. An atom consists of electrons, protons, and neutrons consistent with the fundamentals of atomic structure. 
  • The range of electrons in an atom is the same to that of protons. The same range of bad and tremendous costs are balancing amongst themselves. For this motive, the maximum of the problem is electrically impartial.

Charging through Rubbing: 

Electrons can be transferred from one item to every other upon rubbing  gadgets together. If an item loses any electron, it costs that item positively. If an item profits electrons, that item receives negatively charged electrons.

Types of Charges and their Interaction 

Activity (A): 

  • Two Inflated balloons grasp them in one of these manner as now no longer to touch one another. Rub each of the balloons and launch them with a woolen cloth. 
  • We repeat that interest with the refills of the used pen. Refill one with polythene, then location it in a pitcher tumbler carefully. Refill the opposite with polythene too.


The balloons each repel each other. And moreover charged top off repels.


Same form of costs repels every difference.   

Transfer of Charge and Earthing:


  • We take a bottle of empty jam and a bit of cardboard which is greater than the bottle `s mouth. Make a cardboard hollow in order that we will insert a paper clip manufactured from metallic. 
  •  By rubbing with polythene, we price a top off, and contact it with the paper clip. We examine how they’re repelling each other. Now that the paper clip ends, we contact different charged bodies. In all instances the foil strips act within side the identical manner.


  • Electric price can be handed through a metallic conductor from one crammed tool to every other. When we lightly contact the quit of the paper clip with a hand, we can discover that the electroscope foil strips go back to their unique condition. 
  • We will discover that the foil strips meet every different as we contact the paper clip with our hands. 


It is a stunning flash of mild with the sound of thunder at some stage in a thunderstorm. Lightning is likewise the motion of power from cloud to cloud or from area to ground.

 The Story of Lightning: Types of lightning

  • The air currents tour upward even as a thunderstorm grows, and the droplets of water pass downward.
  • The tremendous costs from those produced costs collect close to the top edges of the clouds, and the bad costs collect close to the decreased edges of the clouds. Researchers have not begun to recognize the precise motive for this.

Dangers of Lightning:  

  • Lightning can harm houses, timber

Lightning Safety:  

  • No open location is secure at some stage in lightning and thunderstorms. A residence is a secure location, or a building. 
  • First thunder signal is a caution to rush to a greater steady location. We ought to look forward to a while after listening to the ultimate thunder earlier than we pop out of the secure location.


  • The earth’s speedy trembling or tremor, which lasts for a completely brief time, is taken into consideration by an earthquake. 
  •  It is as a result of an upheaval deep within the crust of the earth.

Causes of Earthquake:  

  • The tremors are as a result of the motion deep down withinside the earth’s uppermost layer, referred to as the crust. 
  •  The crust of the earth is manufactured from numerous components of landmass. Those also are plate tectonics. Such plates are in non-stop motion.


  •  Seismograph is a tool that facts the tremor-brought on seismic waves.
  •  The oscillator will begin vibrating within side the occasion of an earthquake. This induces waves within side the writing machine and starts off evolving on paper to attract wave-like patterns.

Richter Scale: 

  •  This indicates how severe an earthquake is.
  •  Richter isn’t always linear in size. A significant boom of two at the Richter scale indicates a thousand instances of greater adverse power.

 Damages Due to Earthquake:  

  •  Earthquakes will reason full-size harm to homes , bridges, dams & people.

Protection Against Earthquake:  

  • Some of the preventive measures are as follows for the prevention or minimization of earthquake harm: 
  • The homes ought to be designed to undergo tremors of high-quality significance. Consult architects and structural engineers who’re certified to layout quake evidence homes. 
  • The use of dust or timber is more secure than the heavy constructing substances to make the systems liable to earthquakes. 
  • Cupboards and cabinets ought to be constant to the partitions so that in an earthquake they do not effortlessly fall on someone.

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Seismograph is a device this is used to come across and report earthquakes. It takes the report of seismic waves as a result of an earthquake. It includes a mass this is connected to a hard and fast base, it begins of evolved vibrating whilst tremors. 

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